Ethical Framework and Procedures

The conduct of research, from its inception through to its conclusion, must adhere to core ethical principles, including those set forth in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. These principles mandate unrestricted research conduct while ensuring the protection of human dignity and the welfare of animals.

Ethics is fundamental throughout the research lifecycle, ensuring excellence through adherence to legal and ethical standards. This begins with an ethical review at the project's outset to ensure compliance and enhance the quality of the research. Ethical considerations must guide all scientific endeavors across various research domains.

The journal adheres to the ethical guidelines and misconduct policies recommended by COPE (, addressing issues such as data falsification, plagiarism, and breaches of confidentiality. Each case of alleged misconduct will be assessed by the publisher and editors-in-chief, who may consult the accused party's institution in cases of severe misconduct. Should misconduct be detected at any review stage, the manuscript will be held or rejected; post-publication discoveries of misconduct will lead to retraction.

Publication Ethics Declaration

We are committed to publishing only the highest quality research through rigorous peer review and ensuring that ethical standards are met, particularly in cases of plagiarism, data fabrication, and improper authorship credit. We employ TURNITIN to verify the originality of submissions, adhering to COPE’s Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors.

Roles and Responsibilities in Publishing

Our aims are to contribute to economics, econometrics, finance, and contemporary issues, insist on manuscripts being in English, and uphold high standards for editors, reviewers, and authors to ensure quality and fairness in publication.

Editors' Duties

  • Provide impartial review of submissions based on their academic merit without discrimination.
  • Ensure efficient and timely communication and manuscript processing.
  • Make final decisions on manuscript publication, with the option to consult reviewers.
  • Uphold confidentiality and anonymity in the double-blind review process.
  • Address any publishing process complaints and facilitate corrections or retractions when necessary.

Authors' Obligations

  • Adhere to submission guidelines, ensuring accurate, original data and objective analysis.
  • Comply with the journal's plagiarism policy, recognizing plagiarism as a significant ethical breach.
  • Include complete citations for all referenced data and provide a declaration of data authenticity.
  • Disclose any potential conflicts of interest and list research funding sources.
  • Confirm the manuscript's exclusivity to EC and acknowledge prior publications.
  • Engage with the peer review process and assume responsibility for submitted work, including the correction of significant errors.

Reviewers' Responsibilities

  • Follow the journal's review guidelines, contributing to manuscript quality and integrity.
  • Provide objective and constructive feedback, citing relevant work not mentioned.
  • Maintain confidentiality and disclose any conflicts of interest, withdrawing from the review process if necessary.

Publisher's Role

  • Enforce the journal's ethical principles, addressing unethical behavior.
  • Guarantee the accuracy and integrity of the publication record.
  • Promote intellectual property respect without allowing financial interests to compromise standards.
  • Continually work to refine publication practices in collaboration with the editorial board, reviewers, and authors.

Addressing Unethical Conduct

Violations of ethical guidelines will be managed as follows:

  • Prompt communication of ethical concerns to the editorial board.
  • Collection of evidence and thorough investigation.
  • Fair opportunity for the accused to respond and correct the issue.
  • Protection of human subjects as outlined, emphasizing minimal risk, confidentiality, informed consent, and the unique considerations in survey research.

Statement on the Protection of Human Subjects

The aim of this statement is to delineate the methods employed in surveys and the review process for the protection of human participants. It ensures the safeguarding of participants while maintaining the integrity of the research. This guidance is intended to aid researchers in comprehending the application of these processes in the context of survey research. It addresses aspects such as participation in surveys, associated risks, the principles of anonymity and confidentiality, the benefits of surveys, and the process of informed consent. This document provides authors with the necessary framework to assess if human participants in survey interviews or questionnaire studies have been properly protected across various scenarios. The essential points include:

Participants in surveys typically face no greater risks than those encountered in daily life. Surveys predominantly contribute to the advancement of knowledge and societal benefit. They are unique in their ability to generate information that is broadly applicable to understanding human conditions. The collection of survey data is vital for enhancing our grasp of societal, psychological, and political dynamics, as well as for the assessment and enhancement of public policies. While obtaining explicit consent from survey participants is often impractical, impacting response rates, the critical elements of consent can still be effectively communicated to participants at the outset of every survey. This can take the form of introductory remarks during a telephone survey, a cover letter for mail surveys, or an opening screen for online surveys. Each survey mode offers a tailored approach to presenting consent information, aligning with contemporary views of consent as an ongoing engagement rather than a singular formal agreement.

Anonymity Policy

We maintains the confidentiality of reviewers' identities from authors and fellow reviewers, unless explicitly requested otherwise. The journal upholds a policy of reviewer anonymity both during and following the review process to ensure unbiased assessments. Reviewers contemplating disclosure of their identity must be prepared to engage in further dialogue regarding the manuscript, including addressing comments from other reviewers. Once reviewers are identified, maintaining impartiality may become challenging.

Revealing reviewer identities to authors is restricted without specific authorization from the editor. Reviewers wishing to disclose their identity during the manuscript's review phase must coordinate through the editor, acknowledging their responsibility in such circumstances. If a reviewer's identity becomes known to an author inadvertently, the author is expected to notify the editor promptly.

The journal discourages any attempts by authors to discover or confront reviewers regarding their identities. journal neither confirms nor refutes speculation about the identity of reviewers and advises reviewers to adhere to the same principle of confidentiality.


The Editors in Chief/editors and any editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher.


The journal cooperates with Publons (product of Web of Science), and Review credit which allows verifying reviews provided by reviewers.

Complaints Policy

To ensure the quality of service and long-term relationships with their stakeholders, IEF has a complaint policy in is accountable. The aim of this policy is to ensure that IEF treats complaints with an immediate response in a polite and confidential manner. IEF learns from the complaints and uses them to improve our service. For any complaint, please email